At an intermediate score of 54, Japan is a borderline hierarchical society.
Yes, Japanese are always conscious of their hierarchical position in any social setting and act accordingly.
The "Japanese Periodicals Index" (JPI) is a database of articles from domestically published Japanese language periodicals (some foreign published Japanese language periodicals and some domestically published Western language periodicals are also included) compiled and organized by the National Diet Library.
The direct exchange of cash for favors from government officials is extremely rare.
However, a web of close relationships among companies, politicians, government agencies, and other groups fosters a business climate that is conducive to corruption, most often seen in the rigging of bids on government public works projects. The top corporate tax rate is 23.9 percent, which local taxes and an enterprise tax can increase significantly.
There is a strong notion in the Japanese education system that everybody is born equal and anyone can get ahead and become anything if he (yes, it is still he) works hard enough.
It has to do with whether people´s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”.
The overall tax burden equals 30.3 percent of total domestic income.
Government spending has amounted to 39.9 percent of total output (GDP) over the past three years, and budget deficits have averaged 6.6 percent of GDP. The process for establishing a business is relatively streamlined, but bureaucracy is sometimes stifling, and structural problems discourage entrepreneurial growth.
Japan is one of the world’s top research-producing nations.
But, over the past decade its scholarly output has not kept pace with the average growth in publications around the world.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has energized Japan’s international security role by reducing constraints on the allowable roles and missions of its Self-Defense Forces.